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Quality and Ingredients are what sets us Apart

Handmade Bar Soaps, Bath Bombs, Body Wash, Bath Powder, Bath Salts & Lotions, Proudly made in Tyler Texas​​

Our Products

D&C Soap Company Cucumber Melon Bath Set New
starts @ $22
Handmade Bath Bombs New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Handmade Bath Bombs
starts @ $2.50
D&C Soap Company Lavender Bath Set New
starts @ $22
D&C Soap Company  Bath Salts New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! D&C Soap Company Bath Salts
starts @ $12.00
D&C Soap Company Body Wash New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! D&C Soap Company Body Wash
starts @ $8.00
Angel Bath Powder New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Angel Bath Powder
starts @ $2.50
Essential Oil Diffuser, 180ml New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Essential Oil Diffuser, 180ml
starts @ $14.99
Essential Oil Diffuser, 500ML New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Essential Oil Diffuser, 500ML
starts @ $19.99
Essential Oil Diffuser – 300 ML Premium New
starts @ $19.99
D&C Soap Company Gift Basket New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! D&C Soap Company Gift Basket
starts @ $35
All Natural Silky Hand  and Body Lotion New
starts @ $7
D&C Soap Company  Mega Basket New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! D&C Soap Company Mega Basket
starts @ $75
D&C Soap Company Junior Junior Gift Basket New
starts @ $10
Decorative Soap – Blooming Rose New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Decorative Soap – Blooming Rose
starts @ $5
Decorative Soap – Guardian Angel New
starts @ $5
Decorative Soap – Angel New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Decorative Soap – Angel
starts @ $5
Decorative Soap – Mother Duck and her Duckling New
starts @ $5
African Black Soap New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! African Black Soap
starts @ $5
Handmade Goats Milk Bar Soaps New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Handmade Goats Milk Bar Soaps
starts @ $5
Cold Process Soap New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Cold Process Soap
starts @ $5
Decorative Soap – Butterfly New
NEW LOWER PRICE!!!! Decorative Soap – Butterfly
starts @ $5
handmade soap

D&C Handmade Soap Company

100% Safe Products

Goats Milk Bar Soaps

We make our Goats Milk Bar Soaps from SFIC soap base.​ In the U.S, SFIC is probably the largest and most well-known all natural soap maker. They pride them self on offering all natural soap bases that are made the same way soap has been made for hundreds of years. They use the hot process method and use lye to break down oils like coconut oil into a glycerin soap base.

What is goat milk soap good for? Goat milk soap is wonderful for people with dry or sensitive skin, or conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. It is also perfect for healthy skin that wants to stay that way. Unprocessed, raw goat milk fresh from the farm contains the following benefits.

Is goat milk soap good for acne? The Benefits of Goat Milk Soap for Acne... It also has anti-bacterial properties which stunt the growth of pimple-forming bacteria in your pores. With the numerous vitamins (vitamin D, C, B1, B6, B12, and E, specifically) and alpha-hydroxy acids it provides, the benefits to your skin are obvious.

I recently ordered from D&C, and could not be happier with my experience! My order was processed quickly and delivered to my door in just days. The soaps I ordered are wonderful! The essential oil diffuser I received works so quietly and fills my room with the best aromas. Not only will I recommend D&C Soap Company, but I will be ordering from them again!

Kathie Freeze October 16, 2018 5 star

I have a couple of spots of eczema on my hands and with my occupation I have to wash or use hand sanitizer constantly. I received and used a bottle of the Silky Hand & Body Lotion and in a couple of days I could tell a big difference. It doesn't take a large amount and it absorbed quickly leaving my hands smooth without the greasy feeling. Ready to get more!

Karen Collins January 12, 2018 4 star

I have struggled for years with very sensitive skin. Pretty much every product I use caused me to break out in a rash. I was introduced the D & C Soap Company a little over a year ago, and I absolutely love all of the products. No matter which soap I choose out of their line, I have never had any problems. I recently started using the bath bombs, because who doesn’t love bath bombs right? At any rate, while...

Carolyn November 6, 2017 5 star

I bought a lavender gift set and used it the same night, it all smells so wonderful and I loved how moisturizing the bath bomb and body wash was. Definitely will be buying more bombs!!

Rachel October 24, 2017 5 star

My name is Gary, several months ago I had a serious skin condition. The dermatologist said it was one of the worst cases of fungal infection she had seen. She cleared it up with medical and creams, which were quite expensive. Then she told me I would have to continue with creams and powders because there was still a little left and it would come back worse than before. I bought a couple of bars of the Sandstorm fragrance for...

Gary August 8, 2017 5 star

Custom Orders

CALL

903-352-7488

Please call 903-352-7488 to place a custom order We offer a very versatile and unique service. We can gladly make custom orders. Every item that we make can be made in any fragrance we offer, any quantity or with any combination. In other words, we can build gift sets designed by you!

bathbombs

Are Bath Bombs good for your skin?

The bath bomb starts to break apart. As this happens it releases the colorants, fragrances, and skin-conditioning ingredients, like salts and oils.....
"Bath bombs can add oils to a bath, and the oils are moisturizing,"

says Amy Wechsler, a dermatologist from New York City. Sep 10, 2017

Market Store

D&C Soap Company products are now available in stores!​

STUDIO C SALON

203 State Highway 110 N, Ste 1 Whitehouse, Texas 75791
(903) 839-4842

Designer Consignment of Tyler Women's Clothing Store

4703 Troup Hwy, Tyler, Texas
(903) 939-1888

Finishing Touches Boutique & Hair Salon

123 East Main St., Bullard, Texas
(903) 954-2501

Rose City Treasures

2822 West Erwin St. Tyler TX 75702
903-216-8803

Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid[1] or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts. Since they are salts of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R is an alkyl). The major classification of soaps is determined by the identity of Mn+. When M is Na or K, the soaps are called toilet soaps, used for handwashing. Many metal dications (Mg2+, Ca2+, and others) give metallic soap. When M is Li, the result is lithium soap (e.g., lithium stearate), which is used in high-performance greases.[3] Non-toilet soaps Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases and thickeners. Greases are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil.[4] Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures thereof. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.[5] Metal soaps are also included in modern artists' oil paints formulations as a rheology modifier.[6] Production of metallic soaps Most heavy metal soaps are prepared by neutralization of purified fatty acids: 2 RCO2H + CaO → (RCO2)2Ca + H2O Toilet soaps In a domestic setting, "soap" usually refers to what is technically called a toilet soap, used for household and personal cleaning. When used for cleaning, soap solubilizes particles and grime, which can then be separated from the article being cleaned. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water. The production of toilet soaps usually entails saponification of fats (triglycerides). Triglycerides are vegetable or animal oils and fats. An alkaline solution (often lye or sodium hydroxide) induces saponification whereby the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into salts of fatty acids. Glycerol (glycerin) is liberated. The glycerin can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, although it is sometimes separated. The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap product. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hard. These are used exclusively in greases. For making toilet soaps, triglycerides (oils and fats) are derived from coconut, olive, or palm oils, as well as tallow. Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content, resulting in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil, sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap, is reputed for its particular mildness. The term "Castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. Soap is a chemical compound resulting from the reaction of an alkali (commonly sodium or potassium hydroxide) with a fatty acid. When mixed with water during bathing or washing, they help people and clothes get clean by lowering the chance of dirt and oil to get to the skin or fabric. Soaps are made from animal fats or vegetable oils. There are two basic steps in making soap. They are called Saponification and Salting-out of soap. Soap cleans very well in soft water. It is not toxic to water life. It can be broken down by bacteria. However, it is slightly soluble in water, so it is not often used in washing machines. It does not work well in hard water. It cannot be used in strongly acidic solutions. Hand soaps are only acidic enough to remove unwanted skin oils. For other forms of oil, Dishwashing soap is acidic enough to remove almost all forms of oil without damaging other petrolium products such as Plastic. It does not damage skin either. Soap are the metallic salts of long chain fatty acids. Many soap experts say that soap can be made in many ways. Humanity has used soap-like things for at least 4000 years. The earliest recorded evidence of the making of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon.[1] A recipe for soap having water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) suggests that ancient Egyptians bathed commonly and had animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to make a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents say that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. The word sapo, Latin for soap, likely was borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow". It first appears in Pliny the Elder's account.[11] Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that the men of the Gauls and Germans were more likely to use it than their female counterparts.[12] Aretaeus of Cappadocia, writing in the first century AD, observes among "Celts, which are men called Gauls, those alkaline substances that are made into balls [...] called soap".[13] The Romans' preferred method of cleaning the body was to massage oil into the skin and then scrape away both the oil and any dirt with a strigil. The Gauls used soap made from animal fat. Zosimos of Panopolis, circa 300 AD, describes soap and soapmaking.[14] Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes. The use of soap for personal cleanliness became increasingly common in the 2nd century A.D. According to Galen, the best soaps were Germanic, and soaps from Gaul were second best.[14] Ancient China A detergent similar to soap was manufactured in ancient China from the seeds of Gleditsia sinensis.[15] Another traditional detergent is a mixture of pig pancreas and plant ash called "Zhu yi zi". True soap, made of animal fat, did not appear in China until the modern era.[16] Soap-like detergents were not as popular as ointments and creams.[15] Islamic Middle East Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was produced in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, when soap-making became an established industry. Recipes for soap-making are described by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925), who also gave a recipe for producing glycerine from olive oil. In the Middle East, soap was produced from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkali. In Syria, soap was produced using olive oil together with alkali and lime. Soap was exported from Syria, to other parts of the Muslim world and to Europe.[17] A 12th-century Islamic document describes the process of soap production.[18] It mentions the key ingredient, alkali, which later becomes crucial to modern chemistry, derived from al-qaly or "ashes". By the 13th century, the manufacture of soap in the Islamic world had become virtually industrialized, with sources in Nablus, Fes, Damascus, and Aleppo.[19][20] Medieval Europe Soapmakers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century (then under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire),[21] and in the eighth century, soap-making was well known in Italy and Spain.[22] The Carolingian capitulary De Villis, dating to around 800, representing the royal will of Charlemagne, mentions soap as being one of the products the stewards of royal estates are to tally. The lands of Medieval Spain were a leading soapmaker by 800, and soapmaking began in the Kingdom of England about 1200.[23] Soapmaking is mentioned both as "women's work" and as the produce of "good workmen" alongside other necessities, such as the produce of carpenters, blacksmiths, and bakers.[24] In Europe, soap in the 9th century was produced from animal fats and had an unpleasant smell. Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was later imported from the Middle East.[17] 15th–19th centuries Advertisement for Pears' Soap, 1889 A 1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap Liquid soap Manufacturing process of soaps/detergents In France, by the second half of the 15th century, the semi-industrialized professional manufacture of soap was concentrated in a few centers of Provence—Toulon, Hyères, and Marseille—which supplied the rest of France.[25] In Marseilles, by 1525, production was concentrated in at least two factories, and soap production at Marseille tended to eclipse the other Provençal centers.[26] English manufacture tended to concentrate in London.[27] Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small-scale artisans. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived from the oldest "white soap" of Italy. Industrially manufactured bar soaps became available in the late 18th century, as advertising campaigns in Europe and America promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health.[28] In modern times, the use of soap has become commonplace in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. 20th century Until the Industrial Revolution, soapmaking was conducted on a small scale and the product was rough. In 1780, James Keir established a chemical works at Tipton, for the manufacture of alkali from the sulfates of potash and soda, to which he afterwards added a soap manufactory. The method of extraction proceeded on a discovery of Keir's. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in 1807[29] in London. His son-in-law, Thomas J. Barratt, opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862. During the Restoration era (February 1665 – August 1714) a soap tax was introduced in England, which meant that until the mid-1800s, soap was a luxury, used regularly only by the well-to-do. The soap manufacturing process was closely supervised by revenue officials who made sure that soapmakers' equipment was kept under lock and key when not being supervised. Moreover, soap could not be produced by small makers because of a law which stipulated that soap boilers must manufacture a minimum quantity of one imperial ton at each boiling, which placed the process beyond reach of the average person. The soap trade was boosted and deregulated when the tax was repealed in 1853.[30][31][32] William Gossage produced low-priced, good-quality soap from the 1850s. Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in 1837, initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. American manufacturer Benjamin T. Babbitt introduced marketing innovations that included sale of bar soap and distribution of product samples. William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1886 and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses, formerly called Lever Brothers and now called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large-scale advertising campaigns. Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid[1] or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts. Since they are salts of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R is an alkyl). The major classification of soaps is determined by the identity of Mn+. When M is Na or K, the soaps are called toilet soaps, used for handwashing. Many metal dications (Mg2+, Ca2+, and others) give metallic soap. When M is Li, the result is lithium soap (e.g., lithium stearate), which is used in high-performance greases.[3] Non-toilet soaps Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases and thickeners. Greases are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil.[4] Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures thereof. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.[5] Metal soaps are also included in modern artists' oil paints formulations as a rheology modifier.[6] Production of metallic soaps Most heavy metal soaps are prepared by neutralization of purified fatty acids: 2 RCO2H + CaO → (RCO2)2Ca + H2O Toilet soaps In a domestic setting, "soap" usually refers to what is technically called a toilet soap, used for household and personal cleaning. When used for cleaning, soap solubilizes particles and grime, which can then be separated from the article being cleaned. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water. The production of toilet soaps usually entails saponification of fats (triglycerides). Triglycerides are vegetable or animal oils and fats. An alkaline solution (often lye or sodium hydroxide) induces saponification whereby the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into salts of fatty acids. Glycerol (glycerin) is liberated. The glycerin can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, although it is sometimes separated. The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap product. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hard. These are used exclusively in greases. For making toilet soaps, triglycerides (oils and fats) are derived from coconut, olive, or palm oils, as well as tallow. Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content, resulting in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil, sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap, is reputed for its particular mildness. The term "Castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. Soap is a chemical compound resulting from the reaction of an alkali (commonly sodium or potassium hydroxide) with a fatty acid. When mixed with water during bathing or washing, they help people and clothes get clean by lowering the chance of dirt and oil to get to the skin or fabric. Soaps are made from animal fats or vegetable oils. There are two basic steps in making soap. They are called Saponification and Salting-out of soap. Soap cleans very well in soft water. It is not toxic to water life. It can be broken down by bacteria. However, it is slightly soluble in water, so it is not often used in washing machines. It does not work well in hard water. It cannot be used in strongly acidic solutions. Hand soaps are only acidic enough to remove unwanted skin oils. For other forms of oil, Dishwashing soap is acidic enough to remove almost all forms of oil without damaging other petrolium products such as Plastic. It does not damage skin either. Soap are the metallic salts of long chain fatty acids. Many soap experts say that soap can be made in many ways. Humanity has used soap-like things for at least 4000 years. The earliest recorded evidence of the making of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon.[1] A recipe for soap having water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) suggests that ancient Egyptians bathed commonly and had animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to make a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents say that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. The word sapo, Latin for soap, likely was borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow". It first appears in Pliny the Elder's account.[11] Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that the men of the Gauls and Germans were more likely to use it than their female counterparts.[12] Aretaeus of Cappadocia, writing in the first century AD, observes among "Celts, which are men called Gauls, those alkaline substances that are made into balls [...] called soap".[13] The Romans' preferred method of cleaning the body was to massage oil into the skin and then scrape away both the oil and any dirt with a strigil. The Gauls used soap made from animal fat. Zosimos of Panopolis, circa 300 AD, describes soap and soapmaking.[14] Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes. The use of soap for personal cleanliness became increasingly common in the 2nd century A.D. According to Galen, the best soaps were Germanic, and soaps from Gaul were second best.[14] Ancient China A detergent similar to soap was manufactured in ancient China from the seeds of Gleditsia sinensis.[15] Another traditional detergent is a mixture of pig pancreas and plant ash called "Zhu yi zi". True soap, made of animal fat, did not appear in China until the modern era.[16] Soap-like detergents were not as popular as ointments and creams.[15] Islamic Middle East Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was produced in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, when soap-making became an established industry. Recipes for soap-making are described by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925), who also gave a recipe for producing glycerine from olive oil. In the Middle East, soap was produced from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkali. In Syria, soap was produced using olive oil together with alkali and lime. Soap was exported from Syria, to other parts of the Muslim world and to Europe.[17] A 12th-century Islamic document describes the process of soap production.[18] It mentions the key ingredient, alkali, which later becomes crucial to modern chemistry, derived from al-qaly or "ashes". By the 13th century, the manufacture of soap in the Islamic world had become virtually industrialized, with sources in Nablus, Fes, Damascus, and Aleppo.[19][20] Medieval Europe Soapmakers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century (then under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire),[21] and in the eighth century, soap-making was well known in Italy and Spain.[22] The Carolingian capitulary De Villis, dating to around 800, representing the royal will of Charlemagne, mentions soap as being one of the products the stewards of royal estates are to tally. The lands of Medieval Spain were a leading soapmaker by 800, and soapmaking began in the Kingdom of England about 1200.[23] Soapmaking is mentioned both as "women's work" and as the produce of "good workmen" alongside other necessities, such as the produce of carpenters, blacksmiths, and bakers.[24] In Europe, soap in the 9th century was produced from animal fats and had an unpleasant smell. Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was later imported from the Middle East.[17] 15th–19th centuries Advertisement for Pears' Soap, 1889 A 1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap Liquid soap Manufacturing process of soaps/detergents In France, by the second half of the 15th century, the semi-industrialized professional manufacture of soap was concentrated in a few centers of Provence—Toulon, Hyères, and Marseille—which supplied the rest of France.[25] In Marseilles, by 1525, production was concentrated in at least two factories, and soap production at Marseille tended to eclipse the other Provençal centers.[26] English manufacture tended to concentrate in London.[27] Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small-scale artisans. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived from the oldest "white soap" of Italy. Industrially manufactured bar soaps became available in the late 18th century, as advertising campaigns in Europe and America promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health.[28] In modern times, the use of soap has become commonplace in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. 20th century Until the Industrial Revolution, soapmaking was conducted on a small scale and the product was rough. In 1780, James Keir established a chemical works at Tipton, for the manufacture of alkali from the sulfates of potash and soda, to which he afterwards added a soap manufactory. The method of extraction proceeded on a discovery of Keir's. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in 1807[29] in London. His son-in-law, Thomas J. Barratt, opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862. During the Restoration era (February 1665 – August 1714) a soap tax was introduced in England, which meant that until the mid-1800s, soap was a luxury, used regularly only by the well-to-do. The soap manufacturing process was closely supervised by revenue officials who made sure that soapmakers' equipment was kept under lock and key when not being supervised. Moreover, soap could not be produced by small makers because of a law which stipulated that soap boilers must manufacture a minimum quantity of one imperial ton at each boiling, which placed the process beyond reach of the average person. The soap trade was boosted and deregulated when the tax was repealed in 1853.[30][31][32] William Gossage produced low-priced, good-quality soap from the 1850s. Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in 1837, initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. American manufacturer Benjamin T. Babbitt introduced marketing innovations that included sale of bar soap and distribution of product samples. William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1886 and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses, formerly called Lever Brothers and now called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large-scale advertising campaigns. Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid[1] or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts. Since they are salts of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R is an alkyl). The major classification of soaps is determined by the identity of Mn+. When M is Na or K, the soaps are called toilet soaps, used for handwashing. Many metal dications (Mg2+, Ca2+, and others) give metallic soap. When M is Li, the result is lithium soap (e.g., lithium stearate), which is used in high-performance greases.[3] Non-toilet soaps Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases and thickeners. Greases are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil.[4] Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures thereof. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.[5] Metal soaps are also included in modern artists' oil paints formulations as a rheology modifier.[6] Production of metallic soaps Most heavy metal soaps are prepared by neutralization of purified fatty acids: 2 RCO2H + CaO → (RCO2)2Ca + H2O Toilet soaps In a domestic setting, "soap" usually refers to what is technically called a toilet soap, used for household and personal cleaning. When used for cleaning, soap solubilizes particles and grime, which can then be separated from the article being cleaned. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water. The production of toilet soaps usually entails saponification of fats (triglycerides). Triglycerides are vegetable or animal oils and fats. An alkaline solution (often lye or sodium hydroxide) induces saponification whereby the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into salts of fatty acids. Glycerol (glycerin) is liberated. The glycerin can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, although it is sometimes separated. The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap product. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hard. These are used exclusively in greases. For making toilet soaps, triglycerides (oils and fats) are derived from coconut, olive, or palm oils, as well as tallow. Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content, resulting in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil, sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap, is reputed for its particular mildness. The term "Castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. Soap is a chemical compound resulting from the reaction of an alkali (commonly sodium or potassium hydroxide) with a fatty acid. When mixed with water during bathing or washing, they help people and clothes get clean by lowering the chance of dirt and oil to get to the skin or fabric. Soaps are made from animal fats or vegetable oils. There are two basic steps in making soap. They are called Saponification and Salting-out of soap. Soap cleans very well in soft water. It is not toxic to water life. It can be broken down by bacteria. However, it is slightly soluble in water, so it is not often used in washing machines. It does not work well in hard water. It cannot be used in strongly acidic solutions. Hand soaps are only acidic enough to remove unwanted skin oils. For other forms of oil, Dishwashing soap is acidic enough to remove almost all forms of oil without damaging other petrolium products such as Plastic. It does not damage skin either. Soap are the metallic salts of long chain fatty acids. Many soap experts say that soap can be made in many ways. Humanity has used soap-like things for at least 4000 years. The earliest recorded evidence of the making of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon.[1] A recipe for soap having water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) suggests that ancient Egyptians bathed commonly and had animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to make a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents say that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. The word sapo, Latin for soap, likely was borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow". It first appears in Pliny the Elder's account.[11] Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that the men of the Gauls and Germans were more likely to use it than their female counterparts.[12] Aretaeus of Cappadocia, writing in the first century AD, observes among "Celts, which are men called Gauls, those alkaline substances that are made into balls [...] called soap".[13] The Romans' preferred method of cleaning the body was to massage oil into the skin and then scrape away both the oil and any dirt with a strigil. The Gauls used soap made from animal fat. Zosimos of Panopolis, circa 300 AD, describes soap and soapmaking.[14] Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes. The use of soap for personal cleanliness became increasingly common in the 2nd century A.D. According to Galen, the best soaps were Germanic, and soaps from Gaul were second best.[14] Ancient China A detergent similar to soap was manufactured in ancient China from the seeds of Gleditsia sinensis.[15] Another traditional detergent is a mixture of pig pancreas and plant ash called "Zhu yi zi". True soap, made of animal fat, did not appear in China until the modern era.[16] Soap-like detergents were not as popular as ointments and creams.[15] Islamic Middle East Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was produced in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, when soap-making became an established industry. Recipes for soap-making are described by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925), who also gave a recipe for producing glycerine from olive oil. In the Middle East, soap was produced from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkali. In Syria, soap was produced using olive oil together with alkali and lime. Soap was exported from Syria, to other parts of the Muslim world and to Europe.[17] A 12th-century Islamic document describes the process of soap production.[18] It mentions the key ingredient, alkali, which later becomes crucial to modern chemistry, derived from al-qaly or "ashes". By the 13th century, the manufacture of soap in the Islamic world had become virtually industrialized, with sources in Nablus, Fes, Damascus, and Aleppo.[19][20] Medieval Europe Soapmakers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century (then under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire),[21] and in the eighth century, soap-making was well known in Italy and Spain.[22] The Carolingian capitulary De Villis, dating to around 800, representing the royal will of Charlemagne, mentions soap as being one of the products the stewards of royal estates are to tally. The lands of Medieval Spain were a leading soapmaker by 800, and soapmaking began in the Kingdom of England about 1200.[23] Soapmaking is mentioned both as "women's work" and as the produce of "good workmen" alongside other necessities, such as the produce of carpenters, blacksmiths, and bakers.[24] In Europe, soap in the 9th century was produced from animal fats and had an unpleasant smell. Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was later imported from the Middle East.[17] 15th–19th centuries Advertisement for Pears' Soap, 1889 A 1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap Liquid soap Manufacturing process of soaps/detergents In France, by the second half of the 15th century, the semi-industrialized professional manufacture of soap was concentrated in a few centers of Provence—Toulon, Hyères, and Marseille—which supplied the rest of France.[25] In Marseilles, by 1525, production was concentrated in at least two factories, and soap production at Marseille tended to eclipse the other Provençal centers.[26] English manufacture tended to concentrate in London.[27] Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small-scale artisans. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived from the oldest "white soap" of Italy. Industrially manufactured bar soaps became available in the late 18th century, as advertising campaigns in Europe and America promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health.[28] In modern times, the use of soap has become commonplace in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. 20th century Until the Industrial Revolution, soapmaking was conducted on a small scale and the product was rough. In 1780, James Keir established a chemical works at Tipton, for the manufacture of alkali from the sulfates of potash and soda, to which he afterwards added a soap manufactory. The method of extraction proceeded on a discovery of Keir's. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in 1807[29] in London. His son-in-law, Thomas J. Barratt, opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862. During the Restoration era (February 1665 – August 1714) a soap tax was introduced in England, which meant that until the mid-1800s, soap was a luxury, used regularly only by the well-to-do. The soap manufacturing process was closely supervised by revenue officials who made sure that soapmakers' equipment was kept under lock and key when not being supervised. Moreover, soap could not be produced by small makers because of a law which stipulated that soap boilers must manufacture a minimum quantity of one imperial ton at each boiling, which placed the process beyond reach of the average person. The soap trade was boosted and deregulated when the tax was repealed in 1853.[30][31][32] William Gossage produced low-priced, good-quality soap from the 1850s. Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in 1837, initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. American manufacturer Benjamin T. Babbitt introduced marketing innovations that included sale of bar soap and distribution of product samples. William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1886 and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses, formerly called Lever Brothers and now called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large-scale advertising campaigns. Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid[1] or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts. Since they are salts of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R is an alkyl). The major classification of soaps is determined by the identity of Mn+. When M is Na or K, the soaps are called toilet soaps, used for handwashing. Many metal dications (Mg2+, Ca2+, and others) give metallic soap. When M is Li, the result is lithium soap (e.g., lithium stearate), which is used in high-performance greases.[3] Non-toilet soaps Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases and thickeners. Greases are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil.[4] Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures thereof. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.[5] Metal soaps are also included in modern artists' oil paints formulations as a rheology modifier.[6] Production of metallic soaps Most heavy metal soaps are prepared by neutralization of purified fatty acids: 2 RCO2H + CaO → (RCO2)2Ca + H2O Toilet soaps In a domestic setting, "soap" usually refers to what is technically called a toilet soap, used for household and personal cleaning. When used for cleaning, soap solubilizes particles and grime, which can then be separated from the article being cleaned. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water. The production of toilet soaps usually entails saponification of fats (triglycerides). Triglycerides are vegetable or animal oils and fats. An alkaline solution (often lye or sodium hydroxide) induces saponification whereby the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into salts of fatty acids. Glycerol (glycerin) is liberated. The glycerin can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, although it is sometimes separated. The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap product. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hard. These are used exclusively in greases. For making toilet soaps, triglycerides (oils and fats) are derived from coconut, olive, or palm oils, as well as tallow. Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content, resulting in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil, sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap, is reputed for its particular mildness. The term "Castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. Soap is a chemical compound resulting from the reaction of an alkali (commonly sodium or potassium hydroxide) with a fatty acid. When mixed with water during bathing or washing, they help people and clothes get clean by lowering the chance of dirt and oil to get to the skin or fabric. Soaps are made from animal fats or vegetable oils. There are two basic steps in making soap. They are called Saponification and Salting-out of soap. Soap cleans very well in soft water. It is not toxic to water life. It can be broken down by bacteria. However, it is slightly soluble in water, so it is not often used in washing machines. It does not work well in hard water. It cannot be used in strongly acidic solutions. Hand soaps are only acidic enough to remove unwanted skin oils. For other forms of oil, Dishwashing soap is acidic enough to remove almost all forms of oil without damaging other petrolium products such as Plastic. It does not damage skin either. Soap are the metallic salts of long chain fatty acids. Many soap experts say that soap can be made in many ways. Humanity has used soap-like things for at least 4000 years. The earliest recorded evidence of the making of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon.[1] A recipe for soap having water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) suggests that ancient Egyptians bathed commonly and had animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to make a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents say that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. The word sapo, Latin for soap, likely was borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow". It first appears in Pliny the Elder's account.[11] Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that the men of the Gauls and Germans were more likely to use it than their female counterparts.[12] Aretaeus of Cappadocia, writing in the first century AD, observes among "Celts, which are men called Gauls, those alkaline substances that are made into balls [...] called soap".[13] The Romans' preferred method of cleaning the body was to massage oil into the skin and then scrape away both the oil and any dirt with a strigil. The Gauls used soap made from animal fat. Zosimos of Panopolis, circa 300 AD, describes soap and soapmaking.[14] Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes. The use of soap for personal cleanliness became increasingly common in the 2nd century A.D. According to Galen, the best soaps were Germanic, and soaps from Gaul were second best.[14] Ancient China A detergent similar to soap was manufactured in ancient China from the seeds of Gleditsia sinensis.[15] Another traditional detergent is a mixture of pig pancreas and plant ash called "Zhu yi zi". True soap, made of animal fat, did not appear in China until the modern era.[16] Soap-like detergents were not as popular as ointments and creams.[15] Islamic Middle East Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was produced in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, when soap-making became an established industry. Recipes for soap-making are described by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925), who also gave a recipe for producing glycerine from olive oil. In the Middle East, soap was produced from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkali. In Syria, soap was produced using olive oil together with alkali and lime. Soap was exported from Syria, to other parts of the Muslim world and to Europe.[17] A 12th-century Islamic document describes the process of soap production.[18] It mentions the key ingredient, alkali, which later becomes crucial to modern chemistry, derived from al-qaly or "ashes". By the 13th century, the manufacture of soap in the Islamic world had become virtually industrialized, with sources in Nablus, Fes, Damascus, and Aleppo.[19][20] Medieval Europe Soapmakers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century (then under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire),[21] and in the eighth century, soap-making was well known in Italy and Spain.[22] The Carolingian capitulary De Villis, dating to around 800, representing the royal will of Charlemagne, mentions soap as being one of the products the stewards of royal estates are to tally. The lands of Medieval Spain were a leading soapmaker by 800, and soapmaking began in the Kingdom of England about 1200.[23] Soapmaking is mentioned both as "women's work" and as the produce of "good workmen" alongside other necessities, such as the produce of carpenters, blacksmiths, and bakers.[24] In Europe, soap in the 9th century was produced from animal fats and had an unpleasant smell. Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was later imported from the Middle East.[17] 15th–19th centuries Advertisement for Pears' Soap, 1889 A 1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap Liquid soap Manufacturing process of soaps/detergents In France, by the second half of the 15th century, the semi-industrialized professional manufacture of soap was concentrated in a few centers of Provence—Toulon, Hyères, and Marseille—which supplied the rest of France.[25] In Marseilles, by 1525, production was concentrated in at least two factories, and soap production at Marseille tended to eclipse the other Provençal centers.[26] English manufacture tended to concentrate in London.[27] Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century, using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Many of these soaps are still produced, both industrially and by small-scale artisans. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived from the oldest "white soap" of Italy. Industrially manufactured bar soaps became available in the late 18th century, as advertising campaigns in Europe and America promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health.[28] In modern times, the use of soap has become commonplace in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. 20th century Until the Industrial Revolution, soapmaking was conducted on a small scale and the product was rough. In 1780, James Keir established a chemical works at Tipton, for the manufacture of alkali from the sulfates of potash and soda, to which he afterwards added a soap manufactory. The method of extraction proceeded on a discovery of Keir's. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in 1807[29] in London. His son-in-law, Thomas J. Barratt, opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862. sitemap.htmlLink to a sitemap.xml Handmade Soap Tweet